Fallopian tube obstruction is a major cause of female infertility. Approximately 20% of female infertility can be attributed to tubal causes Blocked fallopian tubes are unable to let the ovum and the sperm converge, thus making fertilization impossible
Distal tubal occlusion (affecting the end towards the ovary) is typically associated with hydrosalpinx formation and often caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. Pelvic adhesions may be associated with such an infection. In less severe forms, the fimbriae may be agglutinated and damaged, but some patency may still be preserved. Midsegment tubal obstruction can be due to tubal ligation procedures as that part of the tube is a common target of sterilization interventions. Proximal tubal occlusion can occur after infection such as a septic abortion.